Despite the legal obstacles described above, workers and unions have found ways in many sectors across the country to extend their bargaining relationships with employers to several sites and, in some cases, to several employers. A large number of approaches are described below. First, when working with unions, a clear understanding of the contract is essential for all HR professionals and executives. The collective agreement (also known as the collective agreement) is the policy document for all decisions affecting workers. All HR professionals and executives should have intimate knowledge of the document and be aware of the elements of the contract that can influence employee relationships. The agreement outlines all the requirements of executives and generally describes how discipline, transportation and transfers work. Over the past 50 years, declining union membership has strongly influenced bargaining interactions. In the mid-1950s, 35% of private sector employees were unionized, whose terms of employment were set by collective bargaining. When the United States moved from manufacturing to a service and employee industry and U.S.
firms were directly affected by global competition from emerging countries, rising labour costs related to unionized personnel were detrimental to many firms. Companies close to the unions have hired law firms and employment advisers to keep their businesses union-free, and organized companies have begun to find ways to get rid of their unions. One of the best-known examples of national multi-employer negotiations that set standards for an entire industry is the Teamsters Master Freight Agreement, negotiated by Jimmy Hoffa in the 1960s.20 When it was first adopted, the Master Freight Agreement included more than 450,000 drivers, had literally hundreds of signatories and set standards for the entire truck industry. However, the agreement has been undermined by deregulation and consolidation of the sector. Nevertheless, the Teamsters are still able to conclude national agreements that raise standards for tens of thousands of freight industry workers. The Master Freight Agreement includes YRC Freight, Holland and New Penn, which together employ approximately 24,000 truck drivers, dockworkers and office workers at more than 200 sites in the United States. In addition, the Teamsters have national agreements with ABF Freight, which covers more than 8,000 employees at more than 150 sites, and UPS Freight, which covers 12,000 freight drivers and dockworkers.